Theophanes is, nevertheless, a good example for Cicero to cite, not only because he was a Greek who was given the citizenship, but because he was given it by Pompey. The conclusio ( 312) recapitulates the main points of the case, and contains no emotional appeal. If this argument too is put another way, its weakness will be apparent:You may be surprised to hear me attributing my success in the courts to a poet rather than a rhetorician, but rhetoric is not the only subject I have studied, and in any case rhetoric and poetry are really the same sort of thing. The main value of this argument, however, is that it introduces the idea of thecommon bond (commune vinclum) by which Cicero claims all branches of culture are linked. These great men would surely never have taken up the study of literature had it not been of help to them in attaining and practicing excellence. While the speech itself is the legal defense of the poet Archias' claim to Roman citizenship, it also situates the debate of legal citizenship within a broader context of Roman cultural . On the political aspect see further Gruen and Stockton (cited n. 12), the former making too much of and the latter too little of the trials political significance. Just as in the exordium he makes clear that this was an unusual speech compared to the tradition of trials. The arguments that follow continue the close connection of poetry with military affairs. By Adam Reiss and Dareh Gregorian. In the end of the confirmatio Cicero gives another reason for his passion for Archias: Nam quas res nos in consulatu nostro vobiscum simul pro salute huius urbis atque imperii et pro vita civium proque universa re publica gessimus, attigit hic versibus atque inchoavit: quibus auditis, quod mihi magna res et iucunda visa est, hunc ad perficiendum adhortatus sum. 3. 5.113), and it was partly for Phaedrus sake that he intervened with C. Memmius to prevent him from demolishing Epicurus house in Athens (Fam. The tone of the passage is philosophical; but it is popular philosophy of a straightforward nature, designed to reassure rather than intimidate the jury. Self-Reference in Ciceros Forensic Speeches, A Volscian Mafia? Treating the jury as intellectuals also serves to reduce the apparent cultural distance separating them and Archias: during the trial, Cicero, Archias, and the jury will all be literary men together. 2 In this context, Cicero asserted that even lawyers lack a proper education, unless they possess a . Such poetry was unfamiliar to most Romans, and had not yet been widely imitated in Latin. At this point there is nothing further that Cicero can say that is directly relevant to the legal issue, and so the digressio ( 1230), consisting of the encomium of literature, intervenes. This was a suitable house for a member of the nobility, as Cicero now was, and it would, incidentally, have been one of the ones frequented by Archias in the 90s, having been the residence then of M. Drusus (Vell. Secondly, the digressio is an enjoyable diversion for the jurors (and also an intellectually undemanding one, despite Ciceros flattery). The exordium ends ( 4a) with a statement of what Cicero intends to prove: (i) that Archias is a Roman citizen, and (ii) that, were he not a citizen, he ought to be one (and ought therefore to be acquitted). First some nuts and bolts. He does, it is true, make an exception for the Greeks of Achaea, who could point to a more distinguished, if remote, past, and lived closer to Rome. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Cicero's Defense of Archias, Political Motives in, 62-70 Cognate Accusative Relative Clauses in Greek, 281-288 College (The) of Quindecim-viri (Sacris Faciundis) in 17 B. C., 289-294 Constitution (The) of the Five Thousand, 189-198 COPLEY, FRANK O. Catullus 55, 9-14, 295-297 Covenant, Hannibal's, 1-2 PAGE Cretan Heroic Poetry and Homer: A Study . Life of Archias. In his argument, Cicero discusses the benefits of literature, the intrinsic dignity or virtue of poets and the relationship of the poet to the state. (III) For when first Archias grew out of childhood, and out of the studies of those arts by which young boys are gradually trained and refined, he devoted himself to the study of writing. In this section, Cicero discredits the four points raised against his client. Again, in outlining the content of Platos Phaedo in Pro Scauro, he implies that he has not read the work, and adds, for the jurys benefit, that Plato was a great philosopher (Scaur. Ciceros main point here is that Archias poem honours not just Lucullus but the Roman people as well: this is meant to show that Archias is useful to the Roman people, and so ought to be cherished by them. Archias wrote poems of the general's military exploits, and in 93 BC, Lucullus helped him gain citizenship of the municipium of Heraclea. 4. At the same time he is also alluding to the uniquely Roman custom whereby nobles kept wax masks (imagines) of their ancestors who had held curule office within the atria of their houses. Gotoff (cited n. 1) 211, 21213 (cf. The edition is nearly error free.1 Two points deserve more substantive comment. But the connection brought social advantages too. Whether this reason or his desire to protect his old teacher weighed more heavily with him it would be foolish to speculate.14 A third reason not explicitly mentioned in the speech but quite clear from it is that Cicero wished to oblige the Luculli. Si quid est in me ingeni, iudices, quod sentio quam sit exiguum, aut si qua exercitatio dicendi, in qua me non infitior mediocriter esse versatum, aut si huiusce rei ratio aliqua ab optimarum artium studiis ac disciplina profecta, a qua ego nullum confiteor aetatis meae tempus abhoruisse, earum rerum omnium vel in primis hic A. Licinius fructum a me repetere prope suo iure debet. Rome Abstract. The style marks the speech as being a self-consciously literary product, and thus cleverly reinforces Ciceros contention that literature can be directed towards useful, practical ends, and is therefore something of value to society. But more fundamentally, Ciceros words convey the impression that Archias was already a Roman citizen. 19.9.1014 (19.9.14: cf. After the rebuttal Cicero presents his case for Archias citizenship. 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In this part he turns his attention specifically to poetry and to Archias, and argues that both are useful to society. 5.7 (April 62 bc) shows him seeking to form closer ties with Pompey. 2. Archias does not appear on the Roman census rolls taken during the period in which he claimed to have lived there. Here Cicero was confronted by a marked xenophobic and anti-intellectual prejudice, one with which he and his brother had no sympathy, but which was prevalent among the jury. In (p. xviii); there are two very similar notes on inde usque (p. 5); the cross-reference to 199-200 (on quae cum ita sint) should probably read 200-203 (p. 85). This second part can be subdivided in several ways (MacKendrick identifies the decisive breaks), but for the most part the transitions are gradual and one point merges into the next. Plut. It is the encomium of literature, however, for which Pro Archia is read and remembered, and which makes this speech a particular favourite among readers for whom the cut and thrust of late Republican politics is not a primary concern. For all branches of culture are linked by a sort of common bond and have a certain kinship with one another. defense of Archias. He does so by presenting poetry in a particular way likely to appeal to his audience. Rome should therefore be grateful that Archias already belongs to her (the argument concludes in the same way as the argument from Homer at 19). The legal argument now being triumphantly concluded, it might be assumed that Ciceros defence is over. The Lex Iulia granted Roman citizenship to all citizens of municipia on the Italic peninsula, provided they had not fought against Rome in the Social War. The Pro Archia, then, is an oration with a complex network of layered meaning with broad cultural implications both for Cicero's audience and for readers today. as for the part of my speech which was out of keeping with the Forum and the tradition of the courtswhen I discussed my clients talents and literary studies in generalI hope that this has been received in good part by you, gentlemen, as I know it has been by the man who is presiding over this court. A few problems of note (some of which have crept into the second edition): read when in for when. His method of dealing with this prejudice is to include a lengthy passage on literature which presents Archias and his poetry in terms which the jurors will find unobjectionable, and perhaps even praiseworthy. 1.79)). If he has not, then the further argument is obviously required. The Luculli straight away received Archias into their house, although even at this time he was still of the age when the toga of boyhood is worn. Let us now turn to the argument of the opening sections; this is also revealing of Ciceros techniques. Cicero begins his account of Archias' life and travels through Asia and Greece during the poet's early career before his first arrival in Rome. This plea for Archias may man of Rome, a man of high birth, a sol- be divided thus: dier of no mean capacity, and an orator of mi I. Cicero's reasons for undertaking the unusual success. A show of stylistic brilliance on Ciceros part will therefore reflect creditably on the man who taught him. 1.25; Quint. After a brief hit at philosophers for their hypocrisy in writing their names on the books they have written, we are back with Roman generals once again: D. Junius Brutus Callaicus inscribed his monuments with poems by Accius, and M. Fulvius Nobilior dedicated his spoils of war to the Muses ( 26b27). In 1516 Cicero considers the objection that many of the great Romans of old were not themselves lovers of literature. The third reason for the high stylistic level may be stated more briefly. Archias was acquitted, as he surely deserved to be: of Ciceros clients, Archias is one of those of whom we can say with most certainty that he was innocent of the crime with which he was charged.15 We hear of him again in 61, presumably still living in Rome, and contemplating writing a poem for the Metelli (Att. The link was not copied. First, M. Lucullus arranged for him to be granted honorary citizenship at Heraclea. After this, 16 closes with the argument that literature is inherently pleasant. There are two pieces of misrepresentation in this sentence. With typical rhetorical flourishes, Cicero asks the "cultivated audience and enlightened jury" 50 to allow this defense speech. Stripped to its essentials, the argument runs as follows:If I have any talent, experience in speaking, or technical skill in oratory derived from training in the liberal arts, then Archias has a strong claim on it. The accusation is believed to have been a political move against Lucullus through Archias. But the poem on Ciceros consulship seems never to have been written, a strange omission on Archias part, since he had a clear duty to provide it. Here, however, Cicero does need to explain briefly why Archias was never included in a census: that of 89 was abandoned, and when censuses were held in 86 and 70 he was each time accompanying L. Lucullus on campaign in the East. But the Luculli were aristocrats in the fishpond class (Att. The Biden . After this he quickly moves on to less controversial territory. of good disposition, large fortune, respect- III. Now since I am not making this speech before an ignorant rabble or before some gathering of rustics I shall be a little more bold in discussing those cultural studies with which you and I are so familiar, and which we find so agreeable. Cat. Pal. In 1, Cicero claims that he owes his skill in speaking to Archias. It could even be read as a sort of laudatio funebris for Archias, Cicero, and liberal learning. C. also knows when less is more. It has been conjectured that it was Archias who first brought Meleagers Garland to Rome and thus introduced the Romans to Greek epigram: we have two Latin epigrams by Catulus, one of which is a translation of an epigram of Callimachus in the Greek Anthology, and the Garland appears also to have been imitated by other contemporary Roman poets (Gel. 5.8.3. A distinction is then made between those like Cicero who study literature and apply it to a useful end, such as defending people in court, and those who study it but make no practical use of it; the latter category, Cicero says, should be ashamed of themselves. To begin with, he was a Syrian by birth, a Greek-speaker from the eastern edge of the Empire. Mur. This is a convenient idea for Cicero because it will allow him, later in the speech, to widen his discussion to include other disciplines of more obvious practicality or value. The authority of these great Romans (all were consuls and two were also censor) wins Cicero his point after all; the technique is the same as that used at 6. If Archias had not already possessed Roman citizenship, Cicero says, he could easily have obtained it as a favour from some general such as Sulla, or from his friend Metellus Pius ( 2526a). In the narratio, the facts are very simply stated. The important point is then made that Archias poetry celebrates the military glory of the Roman people: his poem on the war against the Cimbri actually won the approval of Marius. The notes are clear throughout and fruitfully employ the glossary explanations of key rhetorical features, such as chiasmus, hyperbaton, and hendiadys. So the necessity to present Archias and his poetry in a favourable light is Ciceros main reason for including a lengthy digressio in his speech. Arch. 1.13.6) by purchasing from Crassus a grand house on the Palatine overlooking the Forum. But for Cicero, the opportunity to make play with Marius name a third time was too tempting to pass up. Macrob. As for his declaration before the praetor Metellus, Cicero produces the citizen lists which Metellus compiled, argues for their accuracy, and points to the name of A. Licinius. From every point of view, then, it would have been unthinkable for him not to take on Archias defence. The high stylistic level, secondly, serves to establish an atmosphere of culture and sophistication, and this too is something that was best done right from the start. He was defended by Cicero in the speech known as Pro Archia, but the issue of the trial is unknown. I am grateful to Professor A. J. Woodman for drawing my attention to the Sallust passage. Such language does not occur often in Ciceros speeches, at least after the earlier ones:27 as we have already observed, the style of this speech is pitched at a higher level than normal. There is an exordium ( 14a), then a narratio ( 4b7) outlining Archias career and the process by which he became a Roman citizen. 3). A letter from Cicero to Titus Pomponius Atticus in the year following the trial makes mention of Archias, but there is no conclusive evidence about the outcome of the trial. Among the numerous classical influences in the works of W. E. B. 5.11.25, 8.3.75, 9.4.44, 11.1.34, 11.3.84, 11.3.167). 3.15.6), and we have from Plutarch the attractive story of how Pompey and Cicero invited themselves round to Lucullus house for dinner, and how he tricked them into thinking that he dined on the most lavish scale even when eating alone (Luc. In 13 he contrasts his own study of literature with the frivolous amusements of others: if others devote their spare time to the games, to parties, and dice, why should he not devote his to a pursuit which, he repeats, enables him to defend people in court? This chapter examines the influence of Cicero's ancient defense of the poet Archias on the structure of Du Bois's argument in defense of full civil rights and access to liberal education for African Americans. There was no official enrollment record for Archias in Heraclea because the records office had notoriously been destroyed during the, He also appeared in the records of the praetor. How many finely executed portraits of the most valiant men have the Greek and Latin writers left us, and not only for our contemplation but for our emulation! In Defense of the Poet Archias Marcus Tullius Cicero Context Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus Lucius Licinius Lucullus Cicero Terms Magnus - Pompey Theophanes the Mitylenaean - Pompey's Poet Sulla - Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (82-79 BC) by Cesare Maccari Archias Gratius 62 B.C. The head of the family, L. Licinius Lucullus, went into exile, probably in 102, after being convicted of misconduct in Sicily the previous year, but he had two teenage sons at home, Lucius and Marcus, and Archias no doubt assisted with their education. He is represented as a genius, and as equalling theancient writers (veterum scriptorum)a phrase which leaves it conveniently vague whether we are to think of Greeks (Homer) or Romans (Ennius). But in case anyone is surprised to hear me say this, given that my clients talents lie not in the theory and practice of oratory but in another direction, I should point out that I have never devoted myself exclusively to this one art. By now Cicero may or may not have persuaded the jury of Archias legal claim. He is therefore a poor example to cite. In this passage (which comprises less than two-thirds of the Latin sentence) the atmosphere of high culture is conveyed not only by what Cicero is saying but very largely by the sophisticated way in which the clauses are accumulated and integrated. He'll need an impressive summer to enter the defensive end . Abstract. He was born in Antioch, Syria (modern Antakya, Turkey ). But all books, all the words of the wise and all history are full of examples which teach this lessonexamples which would all be lying in obscurity, had not the light of the written word been brought to them. this page. I suggest three reasons. Callim. 32), I hope that my departure from the practice and the conventions of the courts, and my digression upon the subject of my clients genius, and, in general terms, upon the art which he follows, has been welcomed by you in as generous a spirit as I am assured it has been welcomed by him who presides over this tribunal. Pro Archia has been described asundoubtedly the least typical speech of the Ciceronian corpus.1 Ciceros client is not, as so often, a prominent Roman aristocrat accused of violence, bribery, or extortion, but a Syrian poet whose claim to Roman citizenship was disputed. Etenim omnes artes quae ad humanitatem pertinent habent quoddam commune vinclum et quasi cognatione quadam inter se continentur. Cicero says, "he furnishes me with the means to refresh my mind after the noise of the Forum" (Document 5.4: Cicero, In Defense of Archias (62 B.C.E.). Others can more ably comment on the editions success in that regard. The digressio concludes ( 2830) with Ciceros admission that he too wishes to be immortalized in verse; as he has demonstrated, there are many honourable precedents for this. quae cum ita sint, although there seems to be nothing on esse videa(n)tur). It is one of the best. In Pro Archia, then, we are not spectators of one of the great oratorical clashes which signalled the imminent fall of the Republic; instead, the case is a more small-scale affair, involving a defendant who was, by himself of no political or social importance whatsoever. In 65 BC, the Roman Senate passed the Lex Papia de Peregrinis, which challenged false claims of citizenship and expelled foreigners from Rome. It was no doubt publicly performed at Lucullus triumph in 63.11. He was born at Antioch in Syria probably in the mid-120s, and at an early age became famous throughout the East as a professional poet.4 It is likely that at around this time some of his poems were anthologized by Meleager for his Garland, and the Greek Anthology contains thirty-seven epigrams attributed to a poet with the nameArchias. Perhaps the project was opposed by one of Archias noble patrons; or one could speculate that this may have been a commission made impossible by the enthusiasm of the client. A typical jurorone of a panel of seventy-five20would have taken an entirely different view. 10.7.19, based on this passage) and to produce written compositions. A second factor which makes Pro Archia untypical is that the greater part of it ( 1230) consists of an encomium of literature which, while making for agreeable reading, nevertheless appears at first sight to have little connection with the point at issue.2Of course, there is nothing un-Ciceronian about a lengthy digressio (as I shall term this passage);3 but here the subject of the digression, the status of literature, is one so far removed from the normal concerns of a Cicero speech as to constitute a striking oddity. Cicero's famous defense of the poet Aulus Licinius Archias in Pro Archia Poeta Oratio remains one of the most eloquent and important works of Latin literature to date. Archias's Roman citizenship has been called into question, and through an artful display of oratory and rhetoric, Cicero reconstructs the reality of Archias's life and contributions to provide proof of his worth as a citizen. In reality Archias, if he ever wore a toga at all, which is doubtful, would not have done so until 89, by which time he had been settled in Rome for thirteen years. In both speeches Cicero encourages the jury to feel that they possess the cultural knowledge which will entitle them to pronounce on intellectual questions (and in both speeches he is extremely careful to place only minimal demands on that supposed cultural knowledge). There is no partitio,16 and no reprehensio (unless 1011 are viewed as reprehensio). Cf. If he can somehow imply that Archias trains advocates, then that will give a much more favourable impression than saying that he merely provides instruction in Greek poetry. First, then, let us review 1217. While the speech itself is the legal defense of . Quaeres a nobis, Grati, cur tanto opere hoc homine delectemur. In 62 Archias was prosecuted under this law. When Cicero states Primum Antiochaenam ibi natus est loco nobilicelebri quondam urbe (section 4), he slips in the detail loco nobili not in praise of Antioch, but rather in order to designate Archias social standing: he was born there into a good/noble family (cf. But the argument is nevertheless misleading because it leaves the impression, for example by the reference totechnical skill in oratory (huiusce rei (referring to exercitatio dicendi) ratio), that Archias actually taught Cicero rhetoric. This chapter reviews the historical circumstances of Archias' trial, and then discusses the speech itself and some of the issues it raises, especially that of why the encomium of literature is included, and how it contributes to the defence. Cicero came to his former teacher's defense at his trial in 62 BC, only months after delivering the famous Catiline Orations. The next example, however, is that of Pompey giving Roman citizenship to Theophanes of Mytilene.31 This parallel is less valid since Theophanes was not a poet but a prose historian (scriptorem,writer, is the ambiguous word Cicero uses). C. accompanies that choice with a keen understanding of vocabulary acquisition: The second time a word occurs, it is marked with an asterisk; the third time two asterisks; the fourth time, three asterisks, and thereafter it is dropped from the listit is likely that the studentwill, on the fifth encounter with the word, be able to recognize it and, in context, recall its meaning (p. xi).
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